Accountability, accomplishment, effectiveness, and reduction in corruption will not be achieved by hope, exhortation, and rhetoric. Programs must be restructured to change incentives for both recipients and donor institutions. Each institution should have separate functions that do not duplicate the responsibilities and activities o f other institutions. The IMF should continue as crisis manager under new rules that give member countries incentives to increase the safety and soundness o f their financial systems. For the Bank and the regional banks, emphasis should be on poverty reduction and development not, as in the past, on the volume o f lending.

]]>We establish that a lattice-dependent base-stock and lattice-dependent rationing policy is the optimal inventory replenishment and allocation policy for the aggregate problem under a disaggregation rule that disaggregates each aggregate state into its two extreme original states. This rule drastically reduces the per iteration computational complexity of the value iteration algorithm for the aggregate problem (without sacrificing much accuracy, according to our numerical experiments). We further alleviate the value iteration computational burden by eliminating suboptimal actions based on our optimal policy structure.

For systems in which there is a product that has fulfillment priority over all other products at optimality, we are able to derive finite error bound for the cost function of the aggregate problem. With these bounds we show that the value iteration algorithm in the original problem that starts with the aggregate solution converges to the optimal cost function. Numerical experiments indicate that such an algorithm has distinct computational advantage over the standard value iteration method in the original problem. ]]>

We model the problem as a Markov decision process. We seek an optimal policy that specifies, for every configuration of projects in categories, which projects to test and/or terminate. For two special cases we characterize the optimal project promotion policy as following a new type of strategy, state-dependent non-congestive promotion (SDNCP). SDNCP implies that a project with the highest expected reward in any stage is advanced to the next stage if and only if the number of projects in each successor category is below a congestion-dependent threshold. For the general problem, numerical experiments reveal the outstanding performance of SDNCP (optimal in 72 of 77 instances with maximum deviation from optimal of 0.67%), highlighting when and how a fixed non-congestive promotion policy, which is easier to implement, may fall short. ]]>