Date of Original Version



Working Paper

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Abstract or Description

This research examines the function of offers in U.S. and Japanese integrative negotiations. We propose that early first offers begin information sharing and generate joint gains in Japan but have an anchoring effect that hinders joint gains in the U.S. Using data from the negotiation transcripts of 20 U.S. and 20 Japanese dyads, results supported two hypothesized interactions: 1) early offers generated higher joint gains for Japanese and lower joint gains for U.S. negotiators; 2) exchanging information prior to the first offer generated higher joint gains for U.S. and lower joint gains for Japanese negotiators. The results contribute to theories of negotiation and culture by showing that the use and efficacy of early offers and information exchange differs across cultures.