Date of Original Version
Abstract or Description
We explore the control of a nonholonomic robot subject to additional constraints on the state variables. In our problem, the user speciﬁes the path of a subset of the state variables (the task freedoms xP ), i.e. a curve xP (s) where s ∈ [0, 1] is a parametrization that the user chooses. We control the trajectory of the task freedoms by specifying a bilateral time-scaling s(t) which assigns a point on the path for each time t. The time-scaling is termed bilateral because there is no restriction on ˙ s(t), the task freedoms are allowed to move backwards along the path. We design a controller that satisﬁes the user directive and controls the remaining state variables (the shape freedoms xR ) to satisfy the constraints. Furthermore, we attempt to reduce the number of control switchings, as these result in relatively large errors in our system state. If a constraint is close to being violated (at a switching point), we back up xP along the path for a small time interval and move xR to an open region. We show that there are a ﬁnite number of switching points for arbitrary task freedom paths. We implement our control scheme on the Mobipulator and discuss a generalization to arbitrary systems satisfying similar properties.
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA '03, 3, 3391-3396.