Nonvisual Route Following with Guidance from a Simple Haptic or Auditory Display

Date of Original Version




Abstract or Description

A path-following experiment, using a global positioning system, was conducted with participants who were legally blind. On- and off-course confirmations were delivered by either a vibrotactile or an audio stimulus. These simple binary cues were sufficient for guidance and point to the need to offer output options for guidance systems for people who are visually impaired.


Published In

Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 102, 4, 203-211.