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Abstract or Table of Contents
Abstract: "We review recent theories of non-classical, structured deformations and integral representations for their Helmholtz free energy. Energy minimizers for a body undergoing shearing at two different length scales and for a bar experiencing both smooth extension and macroscopic fractures then are determined, and applications to the shearing of single crystals and to the cohesive fracture of solids are discussed. Yield, hysteresis, and the associated dissipation in two-level shears are shown to arise from instabilities at the microlevel, and the dichotomy between brittle and ductile fracture is related precisely to a critical length of a bar."