Date of Original Version




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Abstract or Table of Contents

J.R.R.Tolkien studied the Old Norse literature and mythology thoroughly. While knowing Northern literature does not provide a key to unlock the meanings of his major works, his characters, creatures, implements, customs, incidents, and themes do have antecedents in the Eddas and sagas. This paper assesses the extent and impact of those antecedents.



Published In

Proceedings of the J.R.R. Tolkien Centenary Conference edited by Patricia Reynolds and Glen H. Goodknight (Keble College, Oxford, 1992). Mythlore 80, Mallorn 30 (Milton Keynes, England and Altadena, California: The Tolkien Society and the Mythopoeic Press, 1995), 63-67.