Date of Original Version



Conference Proceeding

Rights Management

The original publication is available at

Abstract or Description

Intelligent Tutoring Systems have been shown to be effective in a number of domains, but they remain hard to build, with estimates of 200-300 hours of development per hour of instruction. Two goals of the Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) project are to (a) make tutor development more efficient for both programmers and non-programmers and (b) produce scientific evidence indicating which tool features lead to improved efficiency. CTAT supports development of two types of tutors, Cognitive Tutors and Example- Tracing Tutors, which represent different trade-offs in terms of ease of authoring and generality. In preliminary small-scale controlled experiments involving basic Cognitive Tutor development tasks, we found efficiency gains due to CTAT of 1.4 to 2 times faster. We expect that continued development of CTAT, informed by repeated evaluations involving increasingly complex authoring tasks, will lead to further efficiency gains.


The original publication is available at