By weaving fictional narratives and problem solving into everyday life, alternate reality games (ARGs) may be able to fill gaps left by traditional studies in the behavioral and social sciences.
Researchers are exploring new ways to address concerns such as ecological validity, inconsistent replication, and recruitment of large and diverse sample populations. ARG-based research design, using familiar tools and multimedia venues to engage players in meaningful interaction within complex near‐real‐world environments, offers methods that can make a difference.
This book examines the potential strengths of ARG‐based social science research, the challenges that remain to be overcome, and potential starting points for testing these possibilities.
Bernard De Koven
A Playful Path, the new book by games guru and fun theorist Bernard De Koven, serves as a collection of ideas and tools to help us bring our playfulness back into the open. When we find ourselves forgetting the life of the game or the game of life, the joy of form or the content, the play of brain or mind, body or spirit, this book can help us return to that which our soul is heir.
This book focuses on strategies for applying games, simulations and interactive experiences in learning contexts. The contributors orchestrated this collection together, reading and writing as a whole so that concepts resonate across articles. Throughout, the promises and problems of implementing games and media in learning experiences are explored. The articles have been authored by Clark Aldrich, Ian Bogost, Mia Consalvo, William Crosbie, Drew Davidson, Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Melinda Jackson, Donna Leishman, Michael Mateas, Marc Prensky, Scott Rettberg, Kurt Squire, David Thomas, Siobhan Thomas, Jill Walker Rettberg, and Jenny Weight.
This text is an introduction to the future of mass media and mass communications – cross-media communications. Cross-media is explained through the presentation and analysis of contemporary examples and project-based tutorials in cross-media development. The text introduces fundamental terms and concepts, and provides a solid overview of cross-media communications, one that builds from a general introduction to a specific examination of media and genres to a discussion of the concepts involved in designing and developing cross-media communications.
John W. Wesner
"Entertainment Engineering." You may ask, "what has Engineering to do with Entertainment, other than the design of roller coasters?" The reality is that engineering lies behind almost every type of entertainment, from the press that printed this book, through special effects in many movies, to the creation of "rides" based upon flight simulators and industrial robots.
Entertainment has more influence on popular culture than almost anything you can name. In this book we begin in Part 1 by looking at the entertainment industry in general, with a focus on delighting the customers. We ask what is unique/special about the domain Entertainment, we look at the broad scope of Entertainment, and end by asking the reader to think about their own entertainment preferences. In Part 2 we examine exactly how the behind-the-scenes engineering contributes to many specific types of entertainment.
Are games worthy of academic attention? Can they be used effectively in the classroom, in the research laboratory, as an innovative design tool, as a persuasive political weapon? Game Mods: Design Theory and Criticism aims to answer these and more questions. It features chapters by authors chosen from around the world, representing fields as diverse as architecture, ethnography, puppetry, cultural studies, music education, interaction design and industrial design. How can we design, play with and reflect on the contribution of game mods, related tools and techniques, to both game studies and to society as a whole?
Petri Lankoski and Steffan Bjork
Games are increasingly becoming the focus for research due to their cultural and economic impact on modern society. However, there are many different types of approaches and methods than can be applied to understanding games or those that play games. This book provides an introduction to various game research methods that are useful to students in all levels of higher education covering both quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. In addition, approaches using game development for research is described. Each method is described in its own chapter by a researcher with practical experience of applying the method to topic of games. Through this, the book provides an overview of research methods that enable us to better our understanding on games.
Constance Steinkuehler, Crystle Martin, and Amanda Ochsner
This is the first volume of the annual proceedings for the Games+Learning+Society (GLS). The GLS conference is a premier event for those from both academia and industry interested in videogames and learning. The GLS conference is one of the few destinations where the people who create high-quality digital learning media can gather for a serious think about what is happening in the field and how the field can serve the public interest. The conference offers an opportunity for in-depth conversation and social networking across diverse disciplines including game studies, education research, learning sciences, industry, government, educational practice, media design, and business.
The GLS conference offers a host of session types from traditional presentations and symposia to unique session formats like the Fireside Chat, where the audience can engage in an informal discussion with the speaker, or the Micropresentation, which is 20 slides at 20 seconds per slide based on the Pecha Kucha style talk. This year we introduced several new session formats, which included Hall of Failure, a session type devoted to discussing what went wrong and where things broke; and Big Debates, which offer a chance for discussion on key issues in the field. Two other session types, which were added last year, deserve special mention: the Well Played session, created by Drew Davidson from Carnegie Mellon University, based on his Well Played book series, with papers from the Well Played sessions GLS 7.0 being featured in the first issue of the new Well Played journal. The second session type is the Games and Art Exhibition which features art that offers new interpretations on games and play. In the following proceedings papers, many of these session types are represented, offering a strong sampling of some of the best work on games and learning that’s happening right now.
Crystle Martin, Amanda Ochsner, and Kurt Squire
This year we are pleased to be publishing the second volume of the annual proceedings for the Games+Learning+Society (GLS) Conference. For eight years now, GLS has been a valued event for individuals working in academia, industry, and as practitioners in schools to come together around their shared interest and passion for videogames and learning. This conference is one of the few destinations where the people who create high-quality digital learning media can gather to discuss and shape what is happening in the field and how the field can serve the public interest. GLS offers an opportunity for in-depth conversation and social networking across diverse disciplines including game studies, education research, learning sciences, industry, government, educational practice, media design, and business.
The GLS conference offers a variety of session types, ranging from traditional academic presentations and symposia to hands-on workshops and informal Fireside Chats with leading individuals in the field. The first day of the conference offered educators a unique opportunity to participate in workshops relating to various topics around games and learning in the GLS Educators Symposium, directed by Remi Holden. Keynote speakers this year included Colleen Macklin, Reed Stevens, and Sebastian Deterding. This year we hosted several Well Played sessions, offering a unique “close reading” of games ranging from The Elder Scrolls: Skyrim to Super Meat Boy. Introduced by Drew Davidson of Carnegie Mellon University, these analyses enable an opportunity for participants to cross publish in the Well Played journal. We also held the first Educational Game Arcade, where attendees were able to play a variety of educational game titles and talk with the developers. This year the conference also hosted the second Games and Art Exhibition titled Pen and Sword, curated by GLS artist in residence Arnold Martin. In addition to formal presentations the arcade held lively sessions of games such as Johann Sebastian Joust, a social game played with PlayStation Move controllers, as well as the very popular (and sometimes shocking) Cards Against Humanity. The informal social and play sessions throughout the conference offer as much opportunity for debate, discussion, and the incubation of new ideas as the more formal sessions and presentations.
Caroline C. Williams, Amanda Ochsner, Jeremy Dietmeier, and Constance Steinkuehler
This is the third volume of the annual proceedings for the Games+Learning+Society (GLS). The GLS conference is a premier event for those from both academia and industry interested in videogames and learning. The GLS conference is one of the few destinations where the people who create high-quality digital learning media can gather for a serious think about what is happening in the field and how the field can serve the public interest. The conference offers an opportunity for in-depth conversation and social networking across diverse disciplines including game studies, education research, learning sciences, industry, government, educational practice, media design, and business.
Richard E. Ferdig and Kathryn Kennedy
he Handbook of Research on K-12 Online and Blended Learning is an edited collection of chapters that sets out to present the current state of research in K-12 online and blended learning. The beginning chapters lay the groundwork of the historical, international, and political landscape as well as present the scope of research methodologies used. Subsequent sections share a synthesis of theoretical and empirical work describing where we have been, what we currently know, and where we hope to go with research in the areas of learning and learners, content domains, teaching, the role of the other, and technological innovations.
This volume attempts to synthesize existing research; in doing so, it will act as an important resource for those interested in this topic. However, there are always new studies, concepts, and domains within K-12 online and blended learning. Therefore, we ask readers to think of this work not as a completed product but rather a flowing conversation. Each section includes potential new areas for growth in understanding practice, policy, and research. We encourage authors to contact us at handbookresearch (at) gmail (dot) com to propose missing research studies for certain chapters or for proposals on new chapters for future volumes. We look forward to hearing from readers and continuing this important conversation regarding K-12 online and blended learning research.
This book is perfect for any educator or designer seeking an introduction to research-driven best practices for using and designing games for learning. This book provides the latest research and techniques for designing games for a variety of curricular needs--including STEM, literacy learning, history education, music, and computational, ethical, and critical thinking. The book also delves into specific design issues, such as aligning goals, designing for an audience, playtesting, and assessment. Each chapter provides an overview of the relevant frameworks and research findings, as well as practical case studies and useful resources.
This book is the first in a series written and edited by members of the Learning, Education, and Games (LEG) special interest group of the IGDA (International Game Developers Association).
José P. Zagal
It seems like teaching about games should be easy. After all, students enjoy engaging with course content and have extensive experience with videogames. However, games education can be surprisingly complex. This book explores ludoliteracy, or the question of what it means to understand games, by looking at the challenges and problems faced by students taking games-related classes. In response to these challenges, this book then describes how online learning environments can be used to support learning about games by helping students get more from their experiences with games, and helping students use what they know to establish deeper understanding. Based on the findings from a series of research studies, Ludoliteracy examines the broader implications for supporting games education.
Laura Hollengreen, Celia Pearce, Rebecca Rouse, and Bobby Schweizer
Together with the Olympics, world’s fairs are one of the few regular international events of sufficient scale to showcase a spectrum of sights, wonders, learning opportunities, technological advances, and new (or renewed) urban districts, and to present them all to a mass audience. Meet Me at the Fair: A World’s Fair Reader breaks new ground in scholarship on world’s fairs by incorporating a number of short new texts that investigate world’s fairs in their multiple aspects: political, urban/architectural, anthropological/ sociological, technological, commercial, popular, and representational. Contributors come from eight different countries and represent affiliations in academia, museums and libraries, professional and architectural firms, non-profit organizations, and government regulatory agencies. In taking the measure of both the material artifacts and the larger cultural production of world’s fairs, the volume presents its own phantasmagoria of disciplinary perspectives, historical periods, geographical locales, media, and messages, mirroring the microcosmic form of the world’s fair itself.
Christopher Holden, Seann Dikkers, John Martin, and Breanne Litts
This book is an inspirational message about what is possible and practical in the name of learning through mobile media. We present stories from a diverse set of educators, a microcosm of the landscape of mobile media learning. Each author has found a way to create something new and beautiful in their own world. And though their results are exceptional, their surroundings are not. Most are not experts in high-technology, nor highly equipped. They get as far as they do by using what is at hand, in part by making use of accessible, free and open source software. To provide both a deeper look into how these projects operate and a practical resource for those who want to join in, this book addresses most of these tools individually as well. Our detailed, down-to-earth accounts will not only be legible to newcomers but refreshingly forthright to those anxious to better understand educational experiments connecting learning and mobile media. Considering this work across many disciplines, age groups, and theaters, we also find a way toward an elusive truth, what mobile media learning might mean as a whole: what educators are after, the challenges they face, how they manage, what they and learners are getting from it all, and most importantly, what comes next. Beyond informing, we hope to encourage and provoke readers into creative action. We want your stories in our next book.
Joshua Tanenbaum, Magy Seif El-Nasr, and Michael Nixon
1.Introduction to this Collection
By Joshua Tanenbaum
2. Author and Editor Bios
Section I – Introduction to the History and Theory of NVC for VWs
3.Basics of Nonverbal Communication in the Physical World
By Joshua Tanenbaum, Michael Nixon, and Magy Seif El-Nasr
4.Basics of Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Worlds
By Joshua Tanenbaum, Michael Nixon, and Magy Seif El-Nasr
Section II – Identity and Communication in Virtual Worlds
5. Our Empathic Experience of Believable Characters
By Leslie Bishko
6.Virtual Gaze: The Communicative Energy Between Avatar Faces
By Jeffrey Ventrella
7.Avatar Appearance as Prima Facie Non-Verbal Communication
By Jacquelyn Ford Mori
8.TimeTraveller™: First Nations Nonverbal Communication in Second Life
By Elizabeth LaPensée and Jason Edward Lewis
Section III – Virtual Performance and Theater
9. Lessons from the Arts: What the Performing Arts Literature Can TeachUs About Creating Expressive Character Movement
By Michael Neff
10. Theater as Virtual Reality
By Jim R. Parker
11. Animation Principles and Laban Movement Analysis: Movement Frameworks for Creating Empathic Character Performances
By Leslie Bishko
12. Loss of Agency as Expression in Avatar Performance
By Ben Unterman and Jeremy Owen Turner
Section IV – Animating and Puppeteering
13. Empathy in virtual worlds: Making characters believablewith Laban Movement Analysis
By Leslie Bishko
14. Avatar Puppeteering: Direct Manipulation of Avatar Jointsfor Spontaneous Body Language
By Jeffrey Ventrella
15. Automation of Avatar Behavior
By Hannes Högni Vilhjálmsson
16.Synthesizing Virtual Character Behaviors fromInteractive Digital Puppetry
By Elena Erbiceanu, Daniel Mapes, and Charles E. Hughes
Section V –Studying Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Worlds
17. A Few Choice Animations: Nonverbal Communication Through Production and Consumption in Second Life
By Jennifer Martin
18.A Microsociological Perspective on Non-Verbal Communicative Strategies in MMORPGs
By David Kirschner and J. Patrick Williams
19.The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters
By Angela Tinwell, Mark Grimshaw, and Debbie Abdel-Nabi
Section VI – New Directions for NVC in VWs
20.The Future of Avatar Expression: Body Language Evolves on the Internet
By Jeffrey Ventrella
21.Challenges and Opportunities for the Ongoing Study of Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Worlds
By Joshua Tanenbaum, Magy Seif El-Nasr, and Michael Nixon
Kristine E. Pytash, Richard E. Ferdig, and Timothy V. Rasinski
Foreword by David Reinking... XIII
Section I: Preservice Teacher Methods Courses
Chapter 1 Exploring Multimodal Composing Processes with Pre-Service Teachers... 1..... Ryan M Rish
Chapter 2 Developing Preservice Teachers for 21st Century Teaching: Inquiry, the Multigenre Research Paper, and Technology..... 17..... Carol Wickstrom
Chapter 3 No more index cards! No notebooks! Pulling new paradigms through to practice..... 43..... Nanci Werner-Burke & Dawna Vanderpool
Chapter 4 Exploring Writing with iPads: Instructional Change for Pre-Service Educators..... 57..... Joan Rhodes
Section II-- In-service Teacher Methods Courses
Chapter 5 Fostering Student Writing-to-Learn through App Affordances..... 71 .....Richard Beach & David O’Brien
Chapter 6 Virtual worlds, videogames and writing instruction: Exploring games-based writing practices across content areas..... 83..... Hannah Gerber & Debra Price
Chapter 7 Engaging Teachers in Digital Products and Processes: Interview Feature Articles..... 97..... Susan D Martin & Sherry Dismuke
Section III-- Working with Teachers in the K-12 Setting
Chapter 8 Helping teachers make the shift: Professional development for renovated writing instruction..... 111 Vicki S Collet
Chapter 9 Teaching Long-Term English Learners to Write in Content Areas:
The Application of Dynamic and Supportive Instruction..... 125.. Nancy Akhavan
Chapter 10 Technology and Writing Instruction: Three Cases in a Title I Elementary School .....137 ..Beverly McIntyre
Section IV Beyond Professional Development
Chapter 11 Write, Respond, Repeat: A Model for Teachers’ Professional Writing Groups in a Digital Age ....149 ....Troy Hicks, Erin Busch-Grabmeyer, Jeremy Hyler, & Amanda Smoker
Chapter 12 Comic life + writing = motivated student writers: Incorporating visual graphics to teach writing..... 163 .....Lynda Valerie & Farough Abed
Section V Composition Coursework
Chapter 13 Errors and expectations in the electronic era..... 181....Jesse Kavadlo
Chapter 14 E-feedback focused on students’ discussion to guide collaborative writing in online learning environments..... 195.....Teresa Guasch, Anna Espasa & Paul A Kirschner
Chapter 15 Writing with Wikipedia: Building ethos through collaborative academic research...... 209 .....Frances Di Lauro & Angela M Shetler
Section VI Conclusion
Chapter 16 Assessing the impact of technology on preparing teachers to write using technology.....227 .....Kristine E Pytash, Richard E Ferdig, & Timothy V Rasinski
Seann Dikkers, Eric Zimmerman, Kurt Squire, and Constance Steinkuehler
Real-Time Research is a new kind of on-the-spot scholarship. At a series of conferences, the authors of this book asked academics, educators, and designers to collaborate on short-term, improvisational research projects - usually completed within 48 hours. What they found out - by way of sock puppets, video interviews, and lots of critical game play - might just surprise you. This book chronicles the adventures of the authors and the results of their Real-Time Research experiments in education, game design, and media studies. It also serves as a guide to let you conduct your own Real-Time Research. In an age where rapid interdisciplinary investigation matters more and more, Real-Time Research offers a fast-paced method for collaborating across disciplinary boundaries in order to ask important questions. And offers a glimpse into the playful minds of today's leading scholars in games and learning.
This is a unique text exploring the interplay between stories and media. The discussion focuses around the Myst narrative as it moves across media from games to books to comics to games. Along the way, the text also discusses the Sandman comics, and the hypermedia of Ultima Online and MitterNachtSpiel. This text was created hypertextually to exist online as a website with an inter-related book.
Teacher Craft is about how teachers learn to use new digital media. Teacher learning is central to reform and change across subject areas and age levels, but how much do we really know about how teachers learn to try new lessons in classrooms? Minecraft is currently the game of choice for millions of youth and also for these seventeen teachers who claim it has transformed their classrooms. Its rapid adoption also provides a unique window of opportunity to look inside the recent memory of innovative teachers and unpack how they learned. Why did they pick Minecraft? More importantly, how did they pick Minecraft? Where did they hear about it? Who do they trust for ideas? How do they test new ideas? Can we begin to identify the trajectories of truly innovative teachers? It turns out, we can - and it may not be what you’d expect.
Carol Borden, Ian Driscoll, Jim Munroe, James Schellenberg, and Chris Szego
The Cultural Gutter (http://theculturalgutter.com/) is a great example of how wonderful the web can be. As with most things on the web, it was a site that I found through various and sundry links and recommendations from other places. It’s full of insightful articles on the art and craft found in our popular culture. And it was far enough along in its history, that I got to enjoy digging into their archive of past articles and relishing the discovery of a new site full of great content to read. The editors focus their critical eyes on science fiction, comics, romance, movies and games. And every Thursday they post a new article on one of these topics, so it has become a regular visit for me each week. The Cultural Gutter covers topics that resonate with the focus of ETC Press on issues revolving around entertainment technologies and how they can are applied across a variety of fields. With this in mind, ETC Press worked together with the Cultural Gutter editors to create this book. Science fiction/fantasy editor James Schellenberg, comics editor and publisher Carol Borden, romance editor Chris Szego, screen editor Ian Driscoll and founding editor and former games editor Jim Munroe, each chose ten of their favorite articles to share. And then ETC Alum, Eun Jung Lee, designed information graphics to introduce each section, as well as specific interpretative graphics for ten of the articles. The resulting book is a great introduction to the Cultural Gutter, and serves as the tip of the iceberg. Hopefully, it will entice you into visiting the website to enjoy the thoughtful discussion around the wonderfully entertaining world of popular culture. As they quote Oscar Wilde on their site, “We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.” Enjoy!
Steffen P. Walz
Whether we think of a board game, an athletic competition in a stadium, a videogame, playful social networking on the World Wide Web, an Alternate Reality Game, a location-based mobile game, or any combination thereof: Ludic activities are, have, and take place in or at, spaces. “Toward a Ludic Architecture” is a pioneering publication, architecturally framing play and games as human practices in and of space. Filling the gap in literature, Steffen P. Walz considers game design theory and practice alongside architectural theory and practice, asking: how are play and games architected? What kind of architecture do they produce and in what way does architecture program play and games? What kind of architecture could be produced by playing and gameplaying? “Toward a Ludic Architecture” is a must-read for analyzing and designing play and games from an architectural standpoint. Such a contribution is particularly applicable in an era when games extend into physical, designed space that is increasingly permeated by devices, sensors, and information networks, allowing for rules and fictions to superimpose our everyday environments. Including a maze-like, episodic, and critical discussion of interweaving “play-grounds,” “Toward a Ludic Architecture” is a playful look at the conceptual space of play and games.
Annika Waern, José Zagal
Experiential Metaphors in Abstract Games
Breaking Reality: Exploring Pervasive Cheating in Foursquare
Making sense of game-play: How can we examine learning and involvement?
Ioanna Iacovides, James Aczel, Eileen Scanlon, Will Woods
Beyond the digital divide: An ecological approach to gameplay
Replacing preconceived accounts of digital games with experience of play: When parents went native in GTA IV
Gareth Schott, Jasper van Vught
Raine Koskimaa, Franz Mayra, and Jaako Suominen
Raine Koskimaa, Frans Mäyrä, Jaakko Souminen
Digital Materialities and Family Practices: The Gendered, Practical, Aesthetical and Technological Domestication of Play
Player Types: A Meta-synthesis
Juho Hamari, Janne Tuunanen
Player-reported Impediments to Game-based Learning
J. Thomas Harviainen, Timo Lainema, Eeli Saarinen
A practical Guide to Using Digital Games as an Experiment Stimulus
Simo Järvelä, Inger Ekman, J.Matias Kivikangas, Niklas Ravaja
Should I Stay or Should I Go? A Study of Pickup Groups in Left 4 Dead 2
Jonas Linderoth, Staffan Björk, Camilla Olsson
In Defence of a Magic Circle; The Social, Mental and Cultural Boundaries of Play
Virtual Body Language – The History and Future of Avatars: How Nonverbal Expression is Evolving on the Internet
Jeffrey J. Ventrella
Why does the tail wag the brain? What is virtual autism? Why can't our avatars walk hand-in-hand? Will a nonverbal Babel fish save the world? Jeffrey Ventrella, a seasoned virtual worlds programmer and visual language expert, reviews the history of avatars, smileys, and other expressive forms, and considers a future of spectacular creativity. This book combines thoughtful scholarship with amusing anecdotes from the trenches of Silicon Valley. Virtual Body Language presents a thorough analysis of the neurological, linguistic, aesthetic, and technical aspects of how nonverbal communication can be distributed over the internet. Based on nearly a decade of avatar development, Ventrella has the practical foundation on which to justify even the most outrageous claims, regarding what "avatar" might mean in the future.