Date of Award

12-2012

Embargo Period

4-12-2013

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Statistics

Advisor(s)

Cosma Shalizi, Larry Wasserman

Abstract

Many important scientific and data-driven problems involve quantities that vary over space and time. Examples include functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), climate data, or experimental studies in physics, chemistry, and biology.

Principal goals of many methods in statistics, machine learning, and signal processing are to use this data and i) extract informative structures and remove noisy, uninformative parts; ii) understand and reconstruct underlying spatio-temporal dynamics that govern these systems; and iii) forecast the data, i.e., describe the system in the future.

Being data-driven problems, it is important to have methods and algorithms that work well in practice for a wide range of spatio-temporal processes as well as various data types. In this thesis I present such generally applicable statistical methods that address all three problems in a unifying manner.

I introduce two new techniques for optimal nonparametric forecasting of spatiotemporal data: hard and mixed LICORS (Light Cone Reconstruction of States). Hard LICORS is a consistent predictive state estimator and extends previous work from Shalizi (2003); Shalizi, Haslinger, Rouquier, Klinkner, and Moore (2006); Shalizi, Klinkner, and Haslinger (2004) to continuous-valued spatio-temporal fields. Mixed LICORS builds on a new, fully probabilistic model of light cones and predictive states mappings, and is an EM-like version of hard LICORS. Simulations show that it has much better finite sample properties than hard LICORS. I also propose a sparse variant of mixed LICORS, which improves out-of-sample forecasts even further.

Both methods can then be used to estimate local statistical complexity (LSC) (Shalizi, 2003), a fully automatic technique for pattern discovery in dynamical systems. Simulations and applications to fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed methods work well and give useful results in very general scientific settings.

Lastly, I made most methods publicly available as R (R Development Core Team, 2010) or Python (Van Rossum, 2003) packages, so researchers can use these methods and better understand, forecast, and discover patterns in the data they study.

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