Date of Original Version
© ACM, 2014. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published at http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2554797.2554814
Abstract or Description
Non-malleable codes, introduced by Dziembowski, Pietrzak and Wichs (ICS 2010), encode messages s in a manner so that tampering the codeword causes the decoder to either output s or a message that is independent of s. While this is an impossible goal to achieve against unrestricted tampering functions, rather surprisingly non-malleable coding becomes possible against every fixed family F of tampering functions that is not too large (for instance, when lF| ≤ 22αn for some α < 1 where n is the number of bits in a codeword).
In this work, we study the "capacity of non-malleable coding", and establish optimal bounds on the achievable rate as a function of the family size, answering an open problem from Dziembowski et al. (ICS 2010). Specifically,
- We prove that for every family F with lF| ≤ 22αn, there exist non-malleable codes against F with rate arbitrarily close to 1 - α (this is achieved w.h.p. by a randomized construction).
- We show the existence of families of size exp(;nO(1) 2αn) against which there is no non-malleable code of rate 1 - α (in fact this is the case w.h.p for a random family of this size).
- We also show that 1 - α is the best achievable rate for the family of functions which are only allowed to tamper the first αn bits of the codeword, which is of special interest.
- As a corollary, this implies that the capacity of non-malleable coding in the split-state model (where the tampering function acts independently but arbitrarily on the two halves of the codeword, a model which has received some attention recently) equals 1/2.
We also give an efficient Monte Carlo construction of codes of rate close to 1 with polynomial time encoding and decoding that is non-malleable against any fixed c > 0 and family F of size 2nc, in particular tampering functions with, say, cubic size circuits.
Proceedings of the Conference on Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science (ITCS), 2014, 155-168.