Date of Original Version
Abstract or Description
Locating content in decentralized peer-to-peer systems is a challenging problem. Gnutella, a popular file-sharing application, relies on flooding queries to all peers. Although flooding is simple and robust, it is not scalable. We explore how to retain the simplicity of Gnutella, while addressing its inherent weakness: scalability. We propose a content location solution in which peers loosely organize themselves into an interest-based structure on top of the existing Gnutella network. Our approach exploits a simple, yet powerful principle called interest-based locality, which posits that if a peer has a particular piece of content that one is interested in, it is very likely that it will have other items that one is interested in as well. When using our algorithm, called interest-based shortcuts, a significant amount of flooding can be avoided, making Gnutella a more competitive solution. In addition, shortcuts are modular and can be used to improve the performance of other content location mechanisms including distributed hash table schemes. We demonstrate the existence of interest-based locality in five diverse traces of content distribution applications, two of which are traces of popular peer-to-peer file-sharing applications. Simulation results show that interest-based shortcuts often resolve queries quickly in one peer-to-peer hop, while reducing the total load in the system by a factor of 3 to 7.
Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM).